Most of my research interests are materials related. My efforts are toward the fundamental studies of complex systems at the nanoscale with regard to applications of materials at the macroscale. Complex systems exist at surfaces, interfaces and thin films. The experimental techniques that I use to study these systems are both optically and electronically based. Scanning probe microscopies are the work-horses of my research. In particular, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and the newly developed scanning thermopower microscope (STPM) are central in my studies of surfaces and interfaces. The complex systems that are of most interest to me are in the areas of both; "hard" materials (e.g. nanotubes, nanoparticles, semiconductors and metals) and "soft" materials (e.g. self-assembled monolayers, biologically interesting molecules and Langmuir films).